that picked student subjects just before exams, for example, might find that marijuana depressed people.
Mood interacts with expectation, the user's beliefs about what the drug can and will do to him. This, in
turn, derives from what he has heard about the drug, the situation he will be in, and his own past
The user's desires may or may not be congruent with his expectations; he may want to have insights
about himself or find a new appreciation of beauty, but he may expect that the drug will not do this, or
will make such an experience unlikely, given the circumstances.
The experiment or situation includes the immediate factors surrounding the taking of the drug, such as
the physical setting and social interactions. In the experimental situation, both the formal instructions
and the implicit demands given a subject can strongly influence the user-subject's reactions.
The physical setting in which the drug is taken can have important effects. If it is cheerful, warm,
esthetically pleasing, it may help create a positive mood in the intoxicated state with consequent effects
on a variety of other drug phenomena. If the physical setting is cold, sterile, or ugly, negative emotions
may be amplified. Effects that only manifest if the user relaxes his control would not manifest in a
setting that makes the user insecure. Experienced drug users may attempt to turn inward and ignore
unpleasant aspects of the physical setting, with varying degrees of success.
Social events include all interactions with companions, experimenters, other subjects, and casual
droppers-in. A major way of controlling marijuana intoxication is the direction of attention; interactions
with others also direct attention, and this can have a major effect on what the user experiences and how
he behaves. Strangers, people the user does not trust, manipulative people, and the like can produce
strong negative, paranoid reactions. Warm, cheerful, enthusiastic, interested people have an opposite
The formal instructions given in an experimental situation ("We are here in order to study X by doing
Y") further shape the user-subject's expectations as to what will and should happen, provide norms for
behavior, and a goal to be sought. All reports of experiments specify the formal instructions to the
subjects; they are indispensable to understanding the results. Unfortunately, most experimental subjects
now know that experimenters frequently lie to them or mislead them with instructions, implying that the
(5 of 16)4/15/2004 7:02:54 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 2
subjects are dumb, unimportant, or untrustworthy. This does not make for an honest experimentersubject
relationship, and may encourage the subject in turn to lie or mislead the experimenter.
This brings us to the problem of the implicit demands of the experimenter, what Orne (1959, 1962)
has called demand characteristics and Rosenthal (1966) has called the problem of experimenter bi f
practically all the paranormal phenomena covered in the present study. Meditators have more frequent
experience with energetic phenomena, and the Therapy and Growth group seems to have more frequent
experiences with OOBEs and some energetic phenomena.
EFFECTS OF BACKGROUND FACTORS ON
OSTENSIBLE PARANORMAL PHENOMENA
BACKGROUND FACTORS EFFECTS
(8 of 10)4/15/2004 7:06:26 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 10
More Drug Experience
Auras around people
Energy in spine
Sense chakra centers
Less intoxicated for:
Energy in body
Energy in spine
Sense chakra centers
OOBEs before using marijuana
Therapy & Growth
Energy in body
Possessed by good force
OOBEs after starting to use marijuana
Less intoxicated for:
Float in limitless space
After allowing that general credulousness and specific drug-induced credulousness have probably raised the
apparent incidence of paranormal experiences in this group of marijuana users, it is still clear that the
proportion of users reporting such phenomena is much higher than in surveys of general populations, which
have found a low incidence of 2 percent (Holland) and a high incidence of 22 percent (Germany) (Anonymous,
1958; Green, 1966; Membership Committee, American Society for Psychical Research, 1967; Prasad and
Stevenson, 1968). Indeed, the incidence of personal experience of ostensibly paranormal phenomena is as high
in the present sample as that reported for members of a society specifically interested in promoting the
scientific investigation of the paranormal, the American Society for Psychical Research (Membership
Researchers interested in finding subjects especially prone to paranormal experience would do well to
consider marijuana users. Either marijuana use affects judgment such that a large number of ordinary
(9 of 10)4/15/2004 7:06:26 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 10
experiences are judged to be paranormal, or there is a very high incidence of paranormal phenomena associated
with marijuana use, or both.
1. Although paranormal phenomena are not accepted as real by a large number of scientists, this is primarily
a matter of belief system clash ("Since it can't occur, why should I waste my time looking at the evidence?"), or
what Kuhn (1962) has called paradigm clash. The reader interested in a survey of the findings of modern
parapsychology may consult the following references: Broad (1962), Heywood (1959), Johnson (1953),
Murphy (1962), Rao (1966), and West (1954). While laboratory research has established the reality of some
paranormal phenomena beyond doubt, the overenthusiastic and uncritical acceptance of these phenomena by
the young is muddying the waters.(back)
2. Because all users did not answer “I've been growing both Shishke & Sweetooth for a while and would choose 'Sweetooth' over Shishke after
having both of them for over a year. The Sweetooth is a large yielder (50 grams a sq./ft). Sweetooth makes
large contiguous colas even on short plants. The visual of the cured bud is great. The Shishke is a heavy
yielder; I haven't quite decided if the Sweetooth can out yield the Shishke in perfect temperature conditions.
Shishke and Sweetooth are both blue berry hybrids and I notice a lot of similarities in the veg growth of the two
plants, but the Sweetooth has a sweet scent (no ozone required), and can take more stress (it gets hot where I
live). Shishke smells kinda musky, doesn't like heat. If heat stressed it will herm, clones from the same mom
in a different garden have no herms ... otherwise, very easy plant to grow and the high is strong & up. The
high from the Sweetooth is just like the SOL ad "keeps us giddy & high all day". Both plants have fairly "up"
buzz, the Shishke has a hashy taste, and the Sweetooth is sweet & berry.” - Shiva , 4101 (1971) 15), which occurred exclusively with the cis-isomer 54, resulting in the
dihydrofuran derivative 55 I03 have elucidated the mechanism of the conversion of 3,4-<:is- to
3,4-trans-cannabinoids Harvey, and W
I just finished some Positronics original haze for the most part under 44w/sq'.the clones were taken from
outdoor mothers. The outdoor buds at 7 weeks had far better potency and taste than the indoors had at 12
weeks. It did make some righteous size buds indoors and a nice yield, approx. 2 oz/plant. Unfortunately, it
just didn't have the kick of its outdoor mother. I really believe haze needs far more lumens.” – toker2 A Bubblegum and Blueberry hybrid. This plant produces larger buds with more strength and taste than original
Bubblegum. Pungent sticky flowers with an overpowering aroma provide the smoker with a bubbly high and long
lasting buzz. Sure makes blowing bowls of bubbles more fun! Grayeck, Tetrahedron Lett , 273
(1970) “As a matter of fact, almost all the Sagarmatha strains I tried were pretty average when I think back. The only
standout was the Matanuska Tundra or whatever Tony calls it. When I went to Alaska I had the real deal
Matanuska Thunderf*ck and they weren't anywhere near the same. The real Thunderf*ck has an insane
"woo-hoo, I am high!!" kind of high… Sagarmatha's products all seem to be indica dominant "sit down and
rest" strains. Even Western Winds, with it's "soaring cerebral high" was indica laden.” –Geronimo Here's a great tip for you people just starting out. Don’t get caught in the hype about how great Sensi,
Serious, Sagarmatha and Greenhouse are. They are very good but they are just very good commercial pot. The
strains have been around in some form or other for 5 to 10 years and lots of them have lost their original zip.
However... some of the new ones by NCGA tip the scales at excellent. Blue Widow is more powerful and has
much better high than Sags Blueberry and Greenhouse white widow. Stoneblue absolutely destroys the original
Stonehedge and Blueberry that it was made from. Stronger, sweeter with bigger buds that still have distinct
blueberry. The reason NCGA´s strains are so much better is because of hybrid vigor. Not to mention their price
is much much better. -Merry Gary. History of cannabis
���� Cannabis Sativa
���� Hemp is said? M? Chinese, which means litt? generally? plant? sexes?? both m? and the female.
���� Cannabis Sativa is one of the oldest plants cultivated? By e lhomme. The work of hemp? Tait d? J? d? developed? in China 10,000 years BC. It was dabord r? Colt? seeds for food, then ad? quen covered breaking the stem could remove fibers to make paper, threads of p? ches or m? me textiles. The people of ancient China called their country, the country of the hemp and m? Rier. Leaves m? Rier? Were being used for es? To lifting? silk producers in the previous heavens textiles that only the rich and powerful could soffre. The other wore v? Departments hemp.
���� Hemp was also grown? E for the manufacture of weapons of war. The Chinese have used dabord? S bamboo for arcs before d? Cover fiber hemp? Was most recent sister. D? S time, the emperors did use some land for the exclusive cultivation of hemp.
���� For many years the Chinese have jealously guarded? the secret of making paper from hemp. It was not until the fifth if? Our article? Re know that this is first and sent to Japan before s? Tender in the Middle East and appara? Finally be in Europe in the thirteenth if? Century. Use of the plant dates back to XXVIIIth if? Century BC, when Emperor Chen Lung founded the m? Decine chinoise. It then treating the wounds of war by applying the cannabis leaves directly on the wound.
���� Cannabis was? Also cultivated? on the steps of Indian, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, N? pal, daujourdhui Kashmir. Indian farmers were using the technique of ruissage to turn it into flour, boiled or m? Me? Popcorn?.
���� The seeds were also used to provide food and oil? low fatty acid content. In the third if? Cle apr? S AD, Roman Emperor Gallienus lusage recommends cannabis, which ensures he entered? Not happy and hilarious
���� The Romans poss? Daient r? Hemp serves two c? T-s of the Alps. They had one? And Ravenna? Vienna. The supplier of hemp was an tr? S important in the hi? Chy. They use? Also in all its forms v? Behavior, shelter, food and m? Decine.
���� Later, chr? Would demonize cannabis and its use to bind Satanic rites.
���� It was not until the ninth if? Cle and Charlemagne to see? encouraged new? e culture of hemp. In the monastery? Res, monks copyists working on hemp paper? the light re lamps? oil ... hemp. 1455, cest on hemp paper that prints its first Guttemberg? Re bible. In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII d? Clare sacril Seat cannabis.
���� Au XVIe si? Cle, France, Fran? Ois Rabelais m? Doctor and? Writer? Voque de mani? Re d? Tourn? E cannabis in its c? The famous book called Facts and h? Ro? Question the general Pantagruel. A? Undermine French historian? Ais, Pierre Goubert? Was convinced that the prosp? Laughs? growing? la fin du XVIe si? in the seventeenth century and in the west of France? was due mainly to industrial unions of hemp and flax. It must be remembered that? la fin du XVe si? cle, Spain dominated India. DAPR? S Goubert, cest gr? It? la cr? ation of these unions and? changes quon trade with Spain has seen? this? poque growth in France of the wealth of the population.
���� Columbus d? Covered l�m? America in 1492 and introduced by the hemp m? Me occasion. Among the gifts that it offers to the Indians, there are seeds and v? Departments hemp. Hemp is used? manufacture of sails and ropes. Gr? It? him, France, lAngleterre, Spain and Portugal d? veloppent their maritime powers. In 1620, the May Flowers carries English settlers who are conquered? Rir l�m? In America he takes hold? Galement hemp seed. The seeds were? Also introduced Am? America by slaves.
���� One hundred years later, that is on paper that is hemp? Crites the? BAUCHES am of the Constitution? American, cest? Also the case of D? Claration dind? Independence in 1776.
���� For if? Articles, hemp remains a
Mechoulam, Acta Pharm Grayeck, Tetrahedron Lett Grayeck, Tetrahedron Lett Hadley, and C The natural THCs are active in the 3R, 4R series only The examples are chosen to illustrate the strategy used in the
synthesis of various cannabinoids Like
morphine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and cocaine, which have structurally
related analgesics, oxytoxics, and local anaesthetics, respectively, the socially
abused cannabinoids may now be on the verge of generating a family of safer
and more useful therapeutic agents
hydroponic -- Wednesday, March 12, 2014 9:10:13 PM
might be useful for propaganda
purposes—to say that users are a highly "criminal" population, if that is true, in order to
cast doubt on them, as well as on the use of marijuana—but not if we are trying to
understand the nature of society and what makes it work as it does. At the very least, we
would have to separate out the various kinds of crimes which we are interested in.
* I would like to thank Professor John Kaplan for giving me the idea for writing this
chapter, which is heavily indebted to his "Marijuana and Aggression," a chapter in
Marijuana: The New Prohibition, forthcoming. (back)
N O T E S
1. Earle Albert Rowell and Robert Rowell, On the Trail of Marihuana: The Weed of
Madness (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1939), pp. 13,
46,48, 67. (back)
(25 of 28)4/15/2004 1:08:08 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 9
2. We must keep in mind the fact that possession of marijuana is itself a crime, so that
by definition any marijuana user is a "criminal." Obviously, we must exclude marijuana
use from our concept of crime, otherwise our discussion would be a tautology—it would
be true by definition. Thus, when we refer to crime, we assume that it means
nonmarijuana crimes. (back)
3. The federal position may in flux. Under Henry L. Giordano, Harry Anslinger's handpicked
successor, the Bureau of Narcotics took the position that marijuana caused crime.
The present director, John E. Ingersoll, appears to be in the process of re-evaluating the
Bureau's past policies. In a recent speech to the National Academy of Science, he said that
"established positions, where no longer valid, will no longer be maintained." It is too early
to discern what direction this policy will take. However, the fact that Ingersoll has asked
Congress recently to lower the federal penalties on marijuana possession may very well
indicate that the Bureau's position on the criminogenics of marijuana has softened
4. Henry L. Giordano, "Marihuana—A Calling Card to Narcotic Addiction," FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin 37, no. 1l (November 1968): 2. (back)
5. New York State Department of Health, "Violence Direct Result of Marijuana, Says
Bellizzi, State Health Official Cites 27 Murders by Drug Users, New York State
Department of Health Weekly Bulletin 20, no. 26 (June 26, 1967): 101. (back)
6. Thorvald T. Brown, The Enigma of Drug Addiction (Springfield, III.: Charles C
Thomas, 1961), pp. 61, 62. (back)
7. Edward R. Bloomquist, Marijuana (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Glencoe Press, 1968), p 97
8. Louria The Drug Scene, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968), p. 110. (back)
9. Rosweil D. Johnson, "Medico-Social Aspects of Marijuana, The Rhode Island
Medical Journal 51 (March 1968): 176, 177. (back)
10. Thomas Ciesla, Testimony, in Hearings on Marijuana Laws Before the California
Public Health and Safety Committee (Los Angeles, October 18, 1967, morning session),
transcript, pp. 110-l l 1. (back)
11. Bloomq Braun, and Y ty. I don't know any
marijuana smokers by name, so I am simply putting these questionnaires out in places where marijuana
smokers may have a chance to pick them up, and just handing them to people who might or might not
know smokers, until this finally reaches you, with me having no idea of the route. In turn, please take as
many questionnaires from whatever source you get this as you think you can pass on to other marijuana
smokers. The more returns I can get, the more revealing this research will be.
I'm asking for about an hour or two of your time. In return, you will eventually know a lot more about
the psychological effects of marijuana, and the scientific community will learn even more (considering
the starting level); hopefully this knowledge will eventually result in more rational attitudes toward
If you can't fill this out, through lack of time or experience, please pass this material and any other
sets of it you have along to someone who can.
CHARLES T. TART, PH.D.
Because most users experience a variety of intoxication phenomena by the third or fourth time they
use marijuana, I selected the cutoff of a dozen uses to define an "experienced" user. As noted in Chapter
4, all the users who returned the questionnaire were far above this minimal cutoff.
The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (1) instructions; (2) background information questions
(reported on in Chapters 4 and 5) covering such things as age, sex, occupation, education, history of
drug use, and so forth; and (3) 220 descriptions of effects the users might have experienced. (The
questionnaire is reproduced in full in Appendix B.)
Instructions for Filling Out the Questionnaire
The following instructions were attached to each questionnaire:
Do not put your name on this questionnaire or otherwise identify yourself.
The first two pages of the questionnaire are self-explanatory questions about your
background, how much you've used pot, and your experiences with other drugs.
The rest of the questionnaire consists of statements describing a wide variety of
(3 of 10)4/15/2004 7:03:26 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 3
experiences people have reported having while stoned. These descriptive statements have
been taken from a wide variety of different people's accounts and it is unlikely that any
single person has experienced all of the things described.
The statements are grouped into categories, such as Vision Effects, Hearing Effects,
changes in Space-Time Perception, and so on. Some descriptive statements are relevant to
more than one such category, but they are only listed under one, in order to keep this
questionnaire as short as possible.
Each statement describes a particular kind of experience, for example, "I can see more
subtle shades of color." The sense of each statement is that whatever effect is described, it
is considerably stronger or somehow different when stoned than i
Capsules Effects Effects align="right"> Replacement of pyran 0 by N and ring
expansion of ring B by one carbon can retain activity
tion about marijuana. On the one hand, we have
individual anecdotes of marijuana users. These are valuable but cannot be generalized very reliably. We
don't know how much of what is reported is a product of marijuana intoxication and how much of the
individual writer. On the other hand, we have clinical and laboratory experiments. These are as limited
in applicability to the state of marijuana intoxication in general as are the anecdotal accounts, for the
reasons detailed in the next section; the laboratory or clinic is an unusual constellation of conditions,
which accentuates certain potential effects and inhibits others in a way that is atypical of the general use
(8 of 16)4/15/2004 7:02:54 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 2
The ideal study of the nature of marijuana intoxication should proceed in a number of stages. First, we
must determine the range of effects; i.e., what are all the various effects supposedly associated with
Second, since it is impractical to study everything at once, we must determine which of these effects
in the total range are important. We may determine importance on theoretical grounds, which will vary
with our own background and beliefs; or we may, somewhat more objectively, decide to study the
frequent effects and let the rarer ones wait.
Third, we may set up controlled experiments to investigate each important effect in isolation. What
causes it? How does it relate to dosage? Do different personality types experience it with important
variations? Is it adaptive or nonadaptive for certain individuals?
Fourth, we may study the relationships between important effects. Must effect X always appear before
effect Y? Does B inhibit A? Does investigator M always observe effects N. O. P and investigator Q
always observe effects R. S. and T? Why?
Finally, all this knowledge may be put together for a general theoretical understanding of what
marijuana intoxication is. As with any scientific theory, this understanding will then be judged on its
informational usefulness (does it "make sense" and order the observations conveniently?) and its ability
to predict further observations (i.e., if it orders all presently known facts elegantly and can't handle the
next new fact, it's not very good).
In steps three and four, it is important to remember the restricting effects of the laboratory; i.e., the
gain in precision of observation may be offset by the narrowing of the range of potential effects
observed and the distortions caused by experimenter bias. However, if we know the range and
importance in advance, from steps one and two, we can compensate for the restrictions of the laboratory
to a great extent; we will be careful not to overgeneralize and misapply laboratory findings.
THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON MARIJUANA
There is a vast medical and scientific literature on marijuana, dating back over half a century. The
reader interested in perusing this should consult rugs, any area of the car, in fact, that they don't
have to break into. This routinely gathers a large number of arrests, but the American
Civil Liberties Union claims illegal search and seizure on all of these arrests and most are
actually dismissed because of their illegal character.13
Another large proportion of the arrestees were apprehended in a public place—21
percent of the adults and 35 percent of the juveniles. Public arrests are often the
consequence of "stop and frisk" procedures, the suspect supposedly having given the
arresting officer "probable cause" to be searched. Obviously, much of the same police
conduct occurs with public arrests as those which take place in the automobile of the
suspect. The remaining third or so (35 percent for adults; 29 percent for juveniles) of the
arrests took place in a private place, most likely a house or apartment.14 Most of the
"systematic" arrests, i.e., those which result from the work of an undercover agent or an
informer, take place in a private establishment. However, probably most of these "private"
arrests are also a result of accident. A common sequence of events is as follows: "... a
person gets in bad company, or ends up at an address where they (the police) have some
information about a loud party, and they go there and they smell marijuana smoke, and
four or five, six, perhaps seven, people are arrested and complaints are issued and these
people are charged with the crime of marijuana."15
Obviously, the tactic used in law enforcement will influence the kind of suspect
arrested; a change in methods will result in the capture of a different sort of person. Who
gets arrested and who doesn't when arrests take place by accident or patrol harassment? It
seems clear that because of their sheer numbers, these methods are likely to result in the
arrest of a great many mere users. The frequent user-petty seller is vulnerable to arrest,
simply because he is around marijuana most of the time, and any random moment he is
approached by the police will find him possessing incriminating evidence. The large-scale
dealer who does not use is highly unlikely to be arrested if random patrol methods are
employed if he disposes of his goods quickly. In fact, since nearly all fairly regular
marijuana smokers have a supply on hand for their own use, the prevailing arrest tactics
are most likely to snare users; medium-to high-level dealers who have marijuana on hand
continuously are only slightly more likely to be arrested than the regular user—who also
has marijuana on hand most of the time, although generally, a smaller amount.
The present enforcement methods, not being designed to arrest the dealer, are unlikely
to make a dent in the source of the drug and will only result in feelings of injustice among
users who are arrested, since the seriousness of the crime bears a scant relationship to
detection and arrest. In fact, since the ratio of undetected to detected crimes i 15), which occurred exclusively with the cis-isomer 54, resulting in the
dihydrofuran derivative 55
fotos de cannabis
Mechoulam, Tetrahedron Lett Grayeck, Tetrahedron Lett This conversion serves as confirmatory
evidence for the stereochemical assignment of the C·1 hydroxyl group as a
(axial) in 152 for turning on. See Misha S. Zaks Patrick
Hughes, Jerome Jaffe, and Marjorie B. Dolkart, "Young People in the Park Survey of
Socio-Cultural and Drug Use Patterns of Yippies in Lincoln Park, Chicago Democratic
Convention, 1968" (Presented at the American Orthopsychiatric Association, 46th Annual
Meeting, New York, March 30, to April 2, 1969), unpublished manuscript, 28 pp. (back)
3. Herbert Blumer et al., The World of Youthful Drug Use (Berkeley: University of
California, School of Criminology, January 1967). (back)
4. Alan G. Sutter, "Worlds of Drug Use on the Street Scene," in Donald R. Cressey and
David A. Ward, eds., Delinquency, Crime, and Social Process (New York: Harper &
Row, 1969), p. 827. (back)
5. John Kifner, "The Drug Scene: Many Students Now Regard Marijuana as a Part of
Growing Up," The New York Times, January 1 l, 1968, p. 18. (back)
6. A recent film, Easy Rider, released in 1969, in which marijuana is smoked nearly
throughout, depicted a turning-on scene which contained the neophyte's fears: that he
would become hooked on marijuana and that it would lead to harder stuff. This was
laughed at by his initiators. The initiate was provided with instructions on how to smoke
the joint. According to an interview with the film's director, actual marijuana was used in
(14 of 15)4/15/2004 1:05:28 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 6
the smoking scenes. Hopper said, in the Times interview, "This is my 17th grasssmoking
year. Sure, print it, why not? You can also say that that was real pot we smoked in Easy
Rider." See Tom Burke, "Will 'Easy' Do It for Dennis Hopper?" The New York Times,
Sunday, July 20, 1969, D11, D16. (back)
7. The Zaks et al., study found that curiosity was the second most often cited reason for
turning on; over a third of their sample (37 percent) said that the reason for starting on
drugs was curiosity, o p. cit., Table 6, p. 24. (back)
8. Becker, Outsiders (New York: Free Press, 1963), pp. 48—49. (back)
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The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 7
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The Marijuana Smokers
Chapter 7 - The Effects of Marijuana
As with other aspects of the drug, describing the marijuana high has political
implications. Both sides of the debate wish confirmation of their prejudices, and most
facts presented will be distorted to fit them. The postulate, accepted on faith, not fact, that
marijuana is a "crutch" and an "escape from reality," and that man ought to be able to live
completely without recreational drugs naturally approaches the drug's effects in a negative
way. Even if harmless, the effects, whatever they may be, are defined as undesirable.
This aprioristic th Braun, and Y Handrick, R