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Strategy in the Synthesis of (-)-L1'- and L1°-THCs and their Metabolites 211
soel ty—is said to occur not only
with music and the plastic arts, but with all of the art forms. It occurs not merely because
of a physiological change in one or another specific sense, but is said to receive its
principal thrust from a change in thinking process, an impact on the mind, on one's
mentality, one's outlook on the world.19 Leslie Fiedler said at the 1969 "New Worlds"
drug conference at Buffalo, "The end of both drugs and the arts is exaltation and ecstasy."
Psychedelicists assert that marijuana, as the mildest of the psychedelics, allows the
(7 of 22)4/15/2004 1:03:59 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 4
individual to transcend his background limitations, free himself from the encrustation of
lies in his past and unhook himself from a socialization of ignorance and error. Pot allows
the individual to communicate with his primal being, blocked so long by a repressive
civilization. Reality, high, may be viewed "as it really is," without the aid of artificial
props and distorting social lenses. In fact, the very meaning of being high is said to be
encapsuled in the term "ecstasy," from the Greek, meaning to get out of a fixed, inert state,
and to become one with the shimmering, pulsating cosmos.20
... we know much more than we think we know, and grass is one way of
tapping that rich field of knowledge, insight and revelation. Each of us has
stored up in the mind and in the body a mine of awareness.... But by
adulthood our pattern of thinking, of bringing out these thoughts, have
become pretty rigid. Old patterns of thought are repeated, and the same
conclusions are reached. But the unconscious has other answers locked
away; marijuana may be seen as a key to that attic. It breaks down this
pattern by forming new associations between previously unrelated
material... perhaps grass, by temporarily altering the chemistry of the brain,
stimulates new connections, linking up memories and information in
unusual ways. By this synthesis, fresh concepts are formed.... Whereas my
thinking is normally structured along traditional lines of linear thought,
reasoning, building from particulars to generalities, and vice versa, and
drawing associations, corollaries, various conclusions based on other ideas,
when I think behind grass, I frequently think in flashes of insight, which
may be related to what had previously just passed through my mind, or
which may not necessarily be related to anything that went through my
mind as much as 30 seconds before that. So thought is not so architectural
and not so "linear," but more "mosaic." The pot smoker sometimes makes
conceptual leaps that are difficult for others to follow.
In the McLuhan age, the important aspect of art is the experience of the
audience. The depth of the art is contingent on the number of responsive
chords struck in each individual; this indicates a kind of art that is
nonspecific and suggestive, rather than explicit and denotative. The images
produced TllC(2) cb
(±)-13 48 (±)·ci~L\'·iHC 3 47
Chart 1 2
With respect to marijuana (and other psychedelic drugs), however, comments of users indicate that
dosage is only an approximate, and sometimes quite fallible, guide to level of intoxication. Neophytes
may ingest very large quantities of marijuana without feeling any effect. Experienced users generally
report they can become very intoxicated on quantities of marijuana that are small compared to what they
originally required. Further, not only will using the same amount of marijuana from the same supply
result in different degrees of intoxication for a user at different times, many users have special
techniques for raising or lowering their level of intoxication by psychological means.
Users commonly evaluate the potency of marijuana offered for sale by smoking a fixed quantity of it
and rating the level of intoxication thereby attained. In the present study I formalized this procedure by
asking users to rate, on the basis of their extensive experience, the minimal level of intoxication
necessary to experience various intoxication effects. That is, certain effects may be experienced at all
levels of intoxication, others in the moderate and high levels, others only at the high levels. The minimallevel
model, then, assumes there is a threshold level of intoxication below which a certain effect cannot
usually be experienced and above which it can be experienced (assuming other conditions are right for a
potential effect). Once this minimal level is passed, the effect is potentially available at all higher levels.
For example, slowing of time is practically never reported at very low levels of intoxication, but is
usually reported at moderate and higher levels. This model is further discussed in Chapter 24.
The theoretical rationale for self-reporting of depth of an altered state of consciousness may be found
in detail elsewhere (Tart, in press). Briefly, in the course of his marijuana use, a user finds that certain
phenomena become available when using more marijuana and that the progression of phenomena with
increasing dose follows a fairly regular sequence through most of the times he has become intoxicated.
In the future he can then examine what is happening to him, survey the phenomena he can and can't
experience, and estimate his degree of intoxication from this. 4 I have found this kind of selfestimation
of level to be extremely useful in the study of hypnosis (Tart, 1970a), and Frankenhaeuser
(1963) has found estimates of intoxication correlate very highly with dosage levels for nitrous oxide
STUDYING MARIJUANA INTOXICATION
In spite of all the sources of variability and uniqueness discussed above, we still commonly talk of
marijuana intoxication as a state, implying that there is a relatively common pattern superimposed on the
varied manifestations that result from using marijuana. Our present information as to what that pattern
is, is very poor.
We presently have two sources 6 of informa
Terlouw, W "The high is nice. It is strong, yet mellow, and yet still pretty alert. For overall feeling of potency, its not nearly
comparable to couch-lock indicas that we have today, but it is still a good smoke. Anywhere in the U.S. this
would be considered high-quality kryppie grade smoke, but it's not that one-hit extra special. This is definitely
a good plant to start with, very easy to grow, very cheap, and should be good quality no matter what reliable
source you get them from." –shabang
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two-step sequence hin a couple of days.
NEVER EVER BRING A PLANT INSIDE THAT HAS BEEN
OUTSIDE. People who have done this have managed to kill nearly
every plant in their house because they brought a plant indoors that
had spider mites. Marijuana plants are very vulnerable to mite attacks
because the spider mites love to suck marijuana plants dry. They are
tiny, about half the size of this dot --->> . I can not stress how
important this is. We will talk more about pests later.
The next thing we will talk about is what we expect our seeds
to do before they become full flowering plants.
Figure 2.10 - This is example of what pest damage can do to your
crop. Notice how the leaf has been eaten away. Picture by Slowhand.
THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE MARIJUANA PLANT
Figure 2.11 - Another wonderful bud shot from Chimera.
We said before that a plant would grow in three main stages.
Germination, Vegetative growth and flowering. Plants actually grow
in 6 stages. Here is the life cycle of the cannabis plant.
This is the initial stage of growth and occurs when your
seed’s embryo cracks open and the seedling produces a root. This root
fixes itself into the soil and pushes the newborn seeding up and over
the soil surface. Following surface contact two embryonic leaves open
outwards to receive sunlight, pushing the empty seed shell away from
the seedling. It takes anywhere between 12 hours to 3 weeks for seeds
to germinate. Once the plant has reached this stage it goes into the
Figure 2.12 - This is a great picture of an
Indica seedling by Strawdog.
After the first pair of embryonic leaves are receiving light
(Figure 2.12), the plant will begin to produce another small set of new
leaves. These leaves are different from the last and may have some
Marijuana characteristics such as the three-rounded finger shaped
points. As the seedling grows, more of these leaves are formed and
bush upwards along with a stem. Some stems are very weak at this
stage and need the support of a small thin wooden stake tied to the
seedling with some fine thread. The seedling stage can last between 1
and 3 weeks. At the end of the seedling stage your plant will have
maybe 4 - 8 new leaves. Some of the old bottom leaves may drop off.
Figure 2.13 - Here is a picture of a cannabis plant in vegetative
growth. This picture is from GIYO.
The plant now begins to grow at the rate which its leaves can
produce energy. At this stage the plant needs all the light and food it
can get. It will continue to grow upwards producing new leaves as it
moves along (Figure 2.13). It will also produce a thicker stem with
thicker branches and with more fingers on the leaves. It will eventually
start to show its sex. When it does this it is time for the plant’s preflowering
stage. It can take anywhere between 1 and 5 months for the
plant to hit this next stage.
At this stage the plant slows 4) by Adams et al Eschenmoser,Helv
Grignard reaction followed by acid treatment furnished cannabinol 136 "I've grown skunk 1 and hybrids made from it for nearly 20 years. To get a really a good quality crop outdoors
you need to be less than 40 deg from the equator it will need at least 10 weeks from the equinox to finish.
With good cultivation will make 3 to 4 meters high and yield a pound or so of good bud per plant. Indoors it
needs a minimum of 50 w per sq. ft and preferably double and takes 9 to 12 weeks to finish on 12 hrs. Its
75% sat and cant be grown like a modern indica hybrid but when grown properly gives all the modern var.'s a
good run for the money." - Oldtimer1.
"If you like indicas then you can't go wrong with Federation strains. Big Mac a very nice short bush that yields
well, and the taste is almost a sweet hash like, the high is great unless you don't like the munchies, also helps
with pain, only draw back for me was I could not sleep for hours after I tried it one night (save for early
evenings) kept my mind very active but body was not going anywhere." -mota20
About the same time when Mechoulam et al n without viewing the action; a
musical crescendo and a fadeout tell us as much as an explicit rendition about what
actually happened. (Sexual explicitness, however, is coming into style. All this means is
that different cryptograms are utilized.) By examining the marijuana controversy as such a
cultural fragment, we are able to see with crystal clarity the humanly fabricated nature of
the issues and the ideological character of the arguments invoked.
It is the sociologist's job to discover and explicate patterns in social life. One side of a
protracted and apparently insoluble controversy activates arguments that involve such
putatively repugnant components as "socially irresponsible," "vagabond existence,"
"outlandish fashions," "long hair," "lack of cleanliness," and "disdain for conventional
values."25 The other side emphasizes factors that it deems beneficial: "discovery,"
"optical and aural aesthetic perceptions," "self-awareness," "insight," and "minute
engagement."26 So we are led to the conclusion that the controversy is a matter of taste
and style of life, that it revolves about basically unanswerable issues, and its adjudication
will take place on the basis of power and legitimacy, not on the basis of scientific truth. In
fact, given the nature of the disputation, it is difficult to know exactly what is meant by
scientific truth. The problem becomes one of getting support for one or another bias,
rather than the empirical testing of specific propositions, whatever that might entail.
The American Medical Association urges educational programs as an effective
"deterrent" to marijuana use.27 It is not, however, the sheer accumulation of information
about marijuana which the AMA is referring to, since the marijuana user knows more than
the average nonuser about the effects of the drug. Attitudes toward the drug are referred
to, not factual information:
... district officials are so fired up, they'd interrupt the routine of the whole
district just to make sure our kids hear a good speaker or see a movie that
will teach them the basic fact: stay away from drugs.
In order to know exactly what it is that they should stay away from
students must know the nature of drugs... they're provided with basic facts.
These facts aren't given "objectively"—they're slanted, so there's not the
slightest doubt that students understand just how dangerous drugs can be.
You can call it brainwashing if you want to. We don't care what you call
it—as long as these youngsters get the point.28
(13 of 16)4/15/2004 1:03:47 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 3
Not only is the "meaning in the response," but both meaning and response are
structured by power and legitimacy hierarchies. Society calls upon certain status
occupants to verify what we wish to hear. These statuses are protective in nature,
especially designated to respond to certain issues in a predetermined manner. Threats to
society's security must be d iscredited. An elaborate charade is played out; debater's points
are scored—with no acknowledgment from the other side—and no one is converted.
Inexorably, American society undergoes massive social change, and the surface froth of
marijuana use and the marijuana controversy changes with it.
N O T E S
1. Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality (Garden
City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1966), p. 13. (back)
2. Robert K. Merton, "Puritanism, Pietism, and Science," in Social Theory and Social
Structure, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1968), and Robert E. Kennedy, "The Protestant
Ethic and the Parsis," The American Journal of Sociology 68 (July 1962): 11-20. (back)
3. Joseph Needham, "Buddhism and Chinese Science," in Science and Civilization in
China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956), 2: 417-422, 430-431. (back)
4. Peter L. Berger, The Sacred Canopy (Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1967), pp. 33,
36, 90-91, 203. (back)
5. Peter Ludlow, "In Defence of Pot: Confessions of a Canadian Marijuana Smoker,"
Saturday Night, October 1965, pp. 28—32; Allen Ginsberg, "The Great Marijuana Hoax:
First Manifesto to End the Bringdown," Atlantic Monthly, November 1966, pp. 106 112;
Renata Adler, "The Screen: Head, Monkees Movie for a Turned-on Audience," The New
York Times, November 7 1968; Anonymous, "Thoughts on Marijuana and the Artist," in
Erich Goode, ed., Marijuana (New York: Atherton Press, 1969), pp. 177-183. (back)
6. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). (back)
7. Edward R. Bloomquist, Marijuana (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Glencoe Press, 1968),
8. G. Joseph Tauro, "A Judicial Opinion: Commonwealth v. Joseph D. Leis and Ivan
Weiss," Suffolk University Law Review 3 (Fall 1968): 23-41. (back)
9. Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception, bound with Heaven and Hell (New York:
Harper Colophon, 1963), p.34. (back)
10. American Medical Association, "The Crutch That Cripples: Drug Dependence," a
leaflet (Chicago: AMA, 1968), pp. 1, 4. (back)
11. Benjamin Kissin, "On Marijuana," Downstate Medical Center Reporter 7, no. 2
(April 1967): p. 2. (back)
12. James Munch, "Marihuana and Crime," United Nations Bulletin on Narcotics 18
(14 of 16)4/15/2004 1:03:47 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 3
(April-June 1966): 15-22. (back)
13. Harry J. Anslinger and W. G. Tomkins, The Traffic in Narcotics (New York: Funk
and Wagnalls, 1953), pp. 23-35. (back)
14. John Rosevear, Pot: A Handbook of Marihuana (New Hyde Park, N. Y.: University
Books, 1967), pp. 111-112. (back)
15. Bloomquist, op. cit., p. 122-126; Henry Brill, "Why Not Pot Now? Some Questions
and Answers About Marijuana," Psychiatric Opinion 5, no. 5 (October 1968): 2021;
Donald B. Louria, "The Great Marijuana Debate," in The Drug Scene (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1968), p. 105. (back)
16. Bill Davidson, "The Hidden Evils of LSD," The Saturday Evening Post, August 12,
1967, pp. 19 23. (back)
17. Joel Fort, "The 4) by Adams et al Reaction with CH3MgI furnished the
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