hin a couple of days.
NEVER EVER BRING A PLANT INSIDE THAT HAS BEEN
OUTSIDE. People who have done this have managed to kill nearly
every plant in their house because they brought a plant indoors that
had spider mites. Marijuana plants are very vulnerable to mite attacks
because the spider mites love to suck marijuana plants dry. They are
tiny, about half the size of this dot --->> . I can not stress how
important this is. We will talk more about pests later.
The next thing we will talk about is what we expect our seeds
to do before they become full flowering plants.
Figure 2.10 - This is example of what pest damage can do to your
crop. Notice how the leaf has been eaten away. Picture by Slowhand.
THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE MARIJUANA PLANT
Figure 2.11 - Another wonderful bud shot from Chimera.
We said before that a plant would grow in three main stages.
Germination, Vegetative growth and flowering. Plants actually grow
in 6 stages. Here is the life cycle of the cannabis plant.
This is the initial stage of growth and occurs when your
seed’s embryo cracks open and the seedling produces a root. This root
fixes itself into the soil and pushes the newborn seeding up and over
the soil surface. Following surface contact two embryonic leaves open
outwards to receive sunlight, pushing the empty seed shell away from
the seedling. It takes anywhere between 12 hours to 3 weeks for seeds
to germinate. Once the plant has reached this stage it goes into the
Figure 2.12 - This is a great picture of an
Indica seedling by Strawdog.
After the first pair of embryonic leaves are receiving light
(Figure 2.12), the plant will begin to produce another small set of new
leaves. These leaves are different from the last and may have some
Marijuana characteristics such as the three-rounded finger shaped
points. As the seedling grows, more of these leaves are formed and
bush upwards along with a stem. Some stems are very weak at this
stage and need the support of a small thin wooden stake tied to the
seedling with some fine thread. The seedling stage can last between 1
and 3 weeks. At the end of the seedling stage your plant will have
maybe 4 - 8 new leaves. Some of the old bottom leaves may drop off.
Figure 2.13 - Here is a picture of a cannabis plant in vegetative
growth. This picture is from GIYO.
The plant now begins to grow at the rate which its leaves can
produce energy. At this stage the plant needs all the light and food it
can get. It will continue to grow upwards producing new leaves as it
moves along (Figure 2.13). It will also produce a thicker stem with
thicker branches and with more fingers on the leaves. It will eventually
start to show its sex. When it does this it is time for the plant’s preflowering
stage. It can take anywhere between 1 and 5 months for the
plant to hit this next stage.
At this stage the plant slows , 13, 1101 (1976) Salernink, J The plants or branches should be loose and have some space between it and the next. It doesn't take a lot of space just as long as air can circulate. With a closet you do the same thing. You might want to put nails or thumbtacks in the walls for the strings or the clothes hanger bar may be enough. If you use a whole room you need to set up something to keep the plants hanging upside down off the floor. The first few days you allow more ventilation and as the plants get dryer you allow less.
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yhs-mystartdefault Nordqvist, and S
4) by Adams et al 22) oxidized the exocyclic
double bond of (-)_ill(7)_THC acetate (66) with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to the
epoxide 67, which was hydrolyzed (basic conditions were used to avoid forming
the il6-dehydration products) with O
With respect to marijuana (and other psychedelic drugs), however, comments of users indicate that
dosage is only an approximate, and sometimes quite fallible, guide to level of intoxication. Neophytes
may ingest very large quantities of marijuana without feeling any effect. Experienced users generally
report they can become very intoxicated on quantities of marijuana that are small compared to what they
originally required. Further, not only will using the same amount of marijuana from the same supply
result in different degrees of intoxication for a user at different times, many users have special
techniques for raising or lowering their level of intoxication by psychological means.
Users commonly evaluate the potency of marijuana offered for sale by smoking a fixed quantity of it
and rating the level of intoxication thereby attained. In the present study I formalized this procedure by
asking users to rate, on the basis of their extensive experience, the minimal level of intoxication
necessary to experience various intoxication effects. That is, certain effects may be experienced at all
levels of intoxication, others in the moderate and high levels, others only at the high levels. The minimallevel
model, then, assumes there is a threshold level of intoxication below which a certain effect cannot
usually be experienced and above which it can be experienced (assuming other conditions are right for a
potential effect). Once this minimal level is passed, the effect is potentially available at all higher levels.
For example, slowing of time is practically never reported at very low levels of intoxication, but is
usually reported at moderate and higher levels. This model is further discussed in Chapter 24.
The theoretical rationale for self-reporting of depth of an altered state of consciousness may be found
in detail elsewhere (Tart, in press). Briefly, in the course of his marijuana use, a user finds that certain
phenomena become available when using more marijuana and that the progression of phenomena with
increasing dose follows a fairly regular sequence through most of the times he has become intoxicated.
In the future he can then examine what is happening to him, survey the phenomena he can and can't
experience, and estimate his degree of intoxication from this. 4 I have found this kind of selfestimation
of level to be extremely useful in the study of hypnosis (Tart, 1970a), and Frankenhaeuser
(1963) has found estimates of intoxication correlate very highly with dosage levels for nitrous oxide
STUDYING MARIJUANA INTOXICATION
In spite of all the sources of variability and uniqueness discussed above, we still commonly talk of
marijuana intoxication as a state, implying that there is a relatively common pattern superimposed on the
varied manifestations that result from using marijuana. Our present information as to what that pattern
is, is very poor.
We presently have two sources 6 of informa , 191, 166 (1971) 30
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arguments carry any weight at all,
the noxious effects of the drug will be aggravated among the very young. And even if the
promarijuana arguments turn out to substantially sound, that is, that the effects on a wellintegrated,
fully developed adult personality are either beneficial (within agreed-upon
definitions) or negligible, the impact on adolescent and pre-adolescent children (taking
eighteen as a rough demarcation line) is a matter to be investigated separately. It is a
legitimate question to raise as to the influence of marijuana on the young. The following
questions might present themselves as heretofore unanswered requests for much-needed
1. Are adolescents able to assimilate and integrate the insights of a
novel and offbeat perspective into a rewarding day-to-day existence
2. Will they be able to avoid making the drug the focus of their lives, a
complete raison d'être?
3. How aware will adolescents be of the distinction between situations
in which marijuana is relatively harmless (such as with friends, or
watching a film), and those where it may be dangerous (such as,
perhaps, in stressful situations )?
Physicians are acutely aware of the potential damaging effects of the drug on the
adolescent personality. (In fact, even many nonmedical observers who take a relatively
tolerant view of marijuana use in general are concerned about its possible impact on the
young.)43 The Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, a physician, writes:
One needs to be particularly concerned about the potential effect of a reality
distorting agent on the future psychological development of the adolescent
user. We know that normal adolescence is a time of great psychological
turmoil. Patterns of coping with reality developed during the teenage period
are significant in determining adult behavior. Persistent use of an agent
which serves to ward off reality during this critical development period is
likely to compromise seriously the future ability of the individual to make
an adequate adjustment to a complex society.44
(15 of 25)4/15/2004 1:04:59 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 5
THE USE OF MORE POTENT DRUGS
Finally, some physicians oppose marijuana use on the sequential grounds that it leads to
the use of more powerful, truly dangerous and addicting drugs. At one time, heroin was
the primary concern of society, but within the past six years, it has had to share society's
concern with LSD. Physicians have absorbed a good deal of sociological thinking and
generally deny that there is an actual pharmacological link between marijuana use and the
use of LSD and heroin. Being high does not make one crave another, progressively more
potent, drug. As Dr. Brill says, there is no connection between marijuana and other drugs
"in the laboratory," but the association "in the street" is undoubtedly marked.45 The
pusher line of reasoning as to progressive drug use is sometimes cited: "... " These acids
are inactive by themselves but are readily decarboxylated on heating (smoking)
or on GLC to the parent active THCs Bailey and D
Harper,Am J A
II , 185 (1942)
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found in the natural THCs 1 and 2 , 191, 166 (1971)
Handrick et a1
l 0.000000000001 of a difference in reality.
This is just as basic example to get you started. It may not
make complete sense at first but if you read on then it will fall into
place. Some of you may be asking the question.
How do I know if a trait, such as bud color is Homozygous Dominant
(BB), or Heterozygous (Bb) or Homozygous Recessive, (bb)?
If you have been given seeds or a clone you may have been
told that a trait, such potency is Homozygous Dominant, Heterozygous
or Homozygous Recessive. However, you will want to prove this to
yourself. Especially if you are going to use that plant in a future
breeding plan. You will have to do what is called a Test Cross.
THE TEST CROSS
Determining the phenotype of a plant is fairly
straightforward. You look at the plant and you see its phenotype.
Determining the genotype can not be done through visible observation
alone. The genes themselves are somewhat hidden except for their
visible related phenotypes.
Again there are three possible genotypes that the plant can
create. Let’s say golden bud is dominant and silver bud is recessive.
Here is the table.
Homozygous Dominant: BB = Golden Bud.
Heterozygous: Bb = Golden Bud
Homozygous Recessive: bb = Silver Bud.
(The Golden and Silver bud colors are the phenotype. The b and B are
The reason why Bb is golden and not silver is because B
Most phenotypes are observed characteristics but some things
like bud taste are also phenotypes that can not be observed. If we look
at a Mostly Sativa species like a Haze plant we will notice that it is
pale green. Now in a population of Haze plants we may notice that one
or two out of one hundred maybe dark green and not pale green. This
suggests that the dark green color is recessive. We are not totally sure
until we have completed the test but the gene frequencies suggest this.
We may also notice that the bud is golden on most of the plants so this
suggests that the golden bud color is a dominant trait. Some of the
buds on only a few of the plants may be silver. This suggests that the
silver trait is Recessive (bb in our example).
We know that the only genotype that produces the recessive
trait is homozygous recessive (bb). So if a plant shows a recessive trait
in its phenotype, its genotype is probably homozygous recessive.
A plant with a recessive trait always has a homozygous
But this leaves us with a problem. Is the Golden bud or pale
green leaf color a Homozygous Dominant (BB) or is it Heterozygous
So now is the time to perform the Test Cross. Any test cross is
a cross of an organism with an unknown dominant genotype (like in
our case) with an organism that is homozygous recessive for that same
To do this test we need another cannabis plant of the opposite
sex that is homozygous recessive (bb) for the same trait. So we will
stick with bud color as our example. Hey, we have a few silver bud
pl It appears that the reaction products are
very sensitive to structure and/or reaction conditions in cannabinoids
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Synthesis of(+)-cis-t,I- and t,6-THC's
Razdan and Handrick/? had earlier reported a one-step stereospecific synthesis
of (- )-t,I-THC (1) from a carene derivative This plant is especially developed for Skunk lovers. Crossed of best Skunks to their Afghani ancestors. Brush
against this plant and the room becomes immediately filled with powerful Skunk aroma. Despite the smell a
very pleasant high with a little more body to it than the Skunk #1. One of the winners of the 1990 High Times
Harvest Festival where it clearly defeated Skunk #1. The cis-ketone 46 was also prepared
by catalytic reduction (Raney nickel) under high pressure and temperature of
the ketal of 42 followed by treatment with CH3MgI and acid hydrolysis